How the FREIJE Series S Treatment Unit
Prevents Scaling and Corrosion

The primary culprit in the formation of hard lime scale is a substance called calcium carbonate. When the naturally dissolved calcium carbonate in water becomes over-concentrated by heating or evaporation, it tends to precipitate. To do so, it needs a place to begin. Scientifically, these beginning sites, which are actually foreign particles in the water are known as nucleation sites or starting points.

According to today's knowledge, water is made up of about 50% single H2O molecules and 50% molecule clusters, each made up of 50 to 200 H2O molecules. The molecule clusters actually determine the physical characteristics of the water. The molecule clusters tend to form around any foreign particle in the water and literally entrap the particle. Water's ability to entrap foreign particles, makes it a great solvent. In ordinary water all of these starting points, or nucleation sites for calcium carbonate, are entrapped in these molecule clusters (See Figure 1 above).

Since there are no more starting points within the volume of water for the over-concentrated calcium carbonate to attach itself, it will begin attaching itself to any other substrate or surface available in the water such as the tubes of a heat exchanger (Figure 2). Once started, this process repeats itself over and over again with the newly formed calcium carbonate crystals serving as starting points for still more calcium carbonate. The scientific term for what we end up with is crystallization in the dendritic mode, which simply means that it is scale which looks like tree branches when examined under a microscope (Lab photo 1).

When this same water is directed past a series of powerful magnets in a FREIJE Series S treatment unit, (Figure 3) a vibratory frequency results. When this vibratory frequency matches the internal vibratory frequency of the water, the resonance breaks the hydrogen bonds of the molecule clusters and the entrapped foreign particles are released (Figure 4). This is similar to what takes place when the vibratory frequency of a certain note of music matches the internal vibratory frequency of glass and it shatters. The breaking up of these molecule clusters into much smaller H20 molecules makes the water mix better, require less chemicals or other substances, act "wetter", look clearer, taste better, run off surfaces better, etc.

Once released, the foreign particles then are free to become starting points for the remaining calcium carbonate molecules in the water. They begin to form into seeded crystals which look like microscopic free-floating discs. Now the excess calcium carbonate can attach itself to these starting points or seeded crystals within the water itself, rather than forming hard scale on the piping or heat exchange surfaces. (Figure 5 and Lab photo 2) These discs eventually become aragonite which is a powdery, soft form of calcium carbonate. They are now incapable of forming hard scale.

As these seeded crystals take in more calcium carbonate out of solution, this frees up the water to dissolve existing lime scale in pipes or on heat transfer surfaces as the FREIJE treated water comes in contact with the scale. (Figure 6)

When the surface is clean and free of scale, the soft aragonite particles actually form a very thin protective film on the surfaces that the water comes in contact with, helping to protect them from corrosion. (Figure 7) The ability of the Series S treatment unit to inhibit scale deposition and remove existing scale is dependent upon the application and water chemistry.